성매매 '금지'만이 해답인가(2/2)

3. 성 노동자의 이동- 인신매매 및 성 노동자 이주

 

 (필자 주: 영어 trafficking은 한국어로 흔히 ‘인신매매’로 번역되는데, 영어에서는 경제적인 이익을 위해 강압, 강박, 협방, 사기 등을 통해  인간의 신체를 착취하는 행위를 뜻하는 좀 더 ‘일반적’인 의미로 쓰인다. 그래서 불완전하지만 원어대로 트래피킹으로 표기하는 것이 좀 더 적확할 듯 하다.)   반트래피킹 캠페인은 흔히 각국 정부의 외국인 이주와 성매매 불법화와 흔히 연관된다. 여성은 ‘희생자’로 남성은 ‘폭력 주체’로 보는 이미지는 전통적인 이주 여성들의 ‘여성성’과 남성의 ‘남성성’을 재현한다. 결과적으로 반트래피킹 운동이 이주 노동자가 겪는 착취나 폭력을 완화하기보다는 오히려 강화하는 듯 하다. 이주 여성을 ‘트래피킹의 피해자’로 보고 외국인 남성은 ‘트래피킹 주도자’로 보는 시각은 이런 착취를 불러일으키는 물적 토대를 분석하는 것으로 대체돼야 한다.     영국 정치인들은 올해 ‘진실은 섹시하지 않다(The Truth Isn’t Sexy)’라는 반트래피킹 운동을 시작했다. 트래피킹을 현대판 노예매매로 정의하는 것은 일반적이고. 반트래피킹 캠페인은 이런 시각을 강조한다. ‘진실은 섹시하지 않다’ 캠페인도 이러한 일반적 시각을 담은 포스터와 광고물들을 배포하고 있다.

  하지만 현실의 이주 성매매 종사자들의 다수는 이러한 불법 트래피킹과는 상관이 없다.

  O’Connell Davidson은 ‘서유럽에서 성매매를 하는 동유럽, 아프리카, 남미, 동남아 여성들의 대부분은 서유럽으로 이주하길 원한 여성’이라고 말한다. 즉 대부분은 강제로 이주된 것이 아니라 이주를 하기 위해서 ‘성매매’를 택한 것이다.

  Augustin은 “분명 폭력과 강간 등으로 고통 받는 성매매 종사자들이 있다. 하지만 그런 ‘일부’ ‘피해자’가 있는 것과 성매매 종사자 모두를 ‘피해자’로 보는 것은 전혀 다른 문제”라며 “성매매 종사자를 ‘피해자’로 보는 시각은 그들이 아직 덜 성숙하고, 스스로 말하고 판단할 능력이 없으며 따라서 자기 직업, 자기 삶을 선택할 수 없는 것으로 보는 것과 같다”고 지적한다.

  ‘진실은 섹시하지 않다’ 캠페인에서 트래피킹의 피해자는 주로 능력 없고 수동적인 젊은 여성으로 보여주고 또한 ‘트래피킹의 피해자’를 성매매 피해자와 동일시한다.

  아이러니하게도 이처럼 ‘성매매’를 표준화하고 정형화하는 포스터와 광고물들은 ‘여성의 육체와 성적 관계뿐 아니라 그 육체를 바라보는 남성의 시선을 도식화하고 있다.

  문제는 이처럼 성매매를 여성이 강압당해 행하는 것으로 보는 시각에서는 섹스산업에 자발적으로 종사하는 여성, 남성, 트렌스섹슈얼 들의 노동 조건이나 환경, 또 그와 관련된 폭력 등에 대해 검토할 여지가 없다는 것이다.

  또한 이들 캠페인에서 표현된 트래피킹 가해자와 피해자는 항상 비영국의 외국인이다. 이러한 캠페인은 영국인들에게 ‘우리는 선택할 수 있고, 우리는 말할 수 있고, 우리는 현대판 노예제도를 용인하거나 방지할 수 있는’ 반면 외국인은 ‘타자(Others)’(범죄인이건 피해자건)화 해 ‘우리 영국인’들이 그들을 구조해야 한다는 시각을 반영한다.

  Agustin은 “여성 이주자들도 남성과 똑같은 이유로 고국을 떠나 이주를 하고 일을 하는데 여성은 이처럼 억압되고 강요되고 착취되는 존재로 보여주는 것이 놀랍다”고 주장한다. Agustin은 이는 ‘여성은 전통적인 ’가정‘의 수호자이며 여성의 이주는 바람직하지 않다는 것을 보여주는 사례’라고 분석하기도 한다.    따라서 폭력, 희생자, 조직범죄 시각으로 트래피킹을 보는 시각에서 이주 노동자의 노동관계로 관점을 전환할 필요가 있다. 이주노동자를 억압하는 노동정책을 당연시할 것이 아니라 이주 노동자 노동 시장이 어떻게 만들어지고 어떤 환경에서 이들의 착취가 이뤄지는지를 바라볼 필요가 있는 것이다.

—–

 

  이상이 까미유의 강의 내용이었다.

 

  이어진 질의응답시간에 필자는 까미유에게 ‘한국의 사례에서 보듯이 ’성매매 불법화‘가 해답이 아니라는 것에는 나도 동의한다. 그리고 성산업 종사자를 노동자로 인정하자는 주장에도 일리가 있다. 그렇다면 무엇이 성매매 문제의 해답이 될 수 있을까. 그들의 노동조건을 향상시키기 위해서는 성산업이 활성화돼야 할 텐데 그렇다면 과연 ’성매매를 양성화하고 활성화하는 것이 이 많은 성매매 관련 문제에 대한 해답이 될 수 있는가‘라고 질문했다.

 

  그는 “성매매를 상품과 노동으로 본다고 해서 그 산업을 촉진해야 한다는 뜻은 아니다. 성매매 문제는 성매매만의 문제가 아니다. 오히려 전체 사회와 경제 산업 구조를 봐야 한다. 영국의 성 노동자의 대부분은 이주자이다. 이들 이주자, 특히 이주 노동 여성들은 성노동에 종사하지 않더라도 대부분 값싼 가사 노동에 종사하고 있다.

  성매매를 어떻게 보는 가는 개인마다 달라지겠지만 중요한 것은 좀 더 ‘공정한 노동 조건’을 만드는 것이라 생각한다.

  물론 여러 가지 접근 방법이 있다.   성매매를 불법화하고 그들을 단속하고 추방하거나, 아니면 그들을 교화해 다른 대안을 찾도록 한다고 주장하는 사람들도 있다.

  하지만 나는 성산업 종사자들이 어리석지 않다고 생각한다. 대부분 성노동자들은 자기 인생에 대해 이성적인 최선의 선택을 하고 있다고 본다. 왜냐면 그만한 수익을 주는 다른 직업이 가능하지 않기 때문이다“라고 답했다.

 

  딱 떨어지는 해답이라 보이지는 않지만 요약하면 현실을 좀 더 제대로 보자는 말인 듯 하다.

 

  성매매를 불법화해서 문제가 해결된다면 좋겠지만, 우리는 그렇지 않다는 것을 역사와 가까이는 바로 한국의 최근 사례를 통해 알 수 있다.

  성매매에 대한 도덕적인 단죄에 앞서 성매매가 존재할 수밖에 없는 사회구조와 현재 그 산업에 종사하는 사람들의 권익을 생각하는 발상의 전환이 필요하다는 것이다. 그리고 그 첫걸음은 성매매의 ‘불법화’가 아니라 ‘합법화’에 있다는 것이 까미유 및 많은 유럽 진보 학자들의 주장이다.

참고: 이 분야에 관심이 있는 독자라면 섹스 노동자에 관한 최신의 주목받고 있는 연구로 위 글에서도 언급되는 이탈리아 출신 학자이자 활동가인 Laura Agustin의 글을 추천한다.

  최근 ‘Sex at the Margins: Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry’라는 책이 나왔으며 상당수 그의 논문은 그의 홈페이지  http://www.nodo50.org/conexiones/Laura_Agustin/

 

에서 다운로드 받을 수 있다.

카테고리 : 런던이야기

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